An Introduction to the Aramaic of Targum Onqelos by Thomas O. Lambdin, revised by John Huehnergard

By Thomas O. Lambdin, revised by John Huehnergard

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At that time, Fleisch hypothesizes, the form yafʿala of the imperfect verb began to spread and eventually came to be considered the only possible form in contexts of the subjunctive, but there were still remains of the previous linguistic system of the speakers who used the form yafʿalu exclusively. These remains are the above-mentioned instances, in which one finds ʾan yafʿalu (instead of yaf ʿala). Fleisch thus argues that there is no basis for the theory of ʾan al-muxaffafa and considers the instances of “free naṣb” in which ʾan is omitted and the verb is 59 Cf.

In two very different structures, namely when ʾan is followed by a nominal sentence or a conditional one (see c. and d. below, respectively), it is also conceived as occurring in the sense of ʾannahu.  ʾAn al-muxaffafa followed by rafʿ Here are the five examples which Sībawayhi provides at the beginning of chapter 276 for ʾan occurring in the sense of ʾannahu:67 1. Qad ʿalimtu ʾan lā yaqūlu ḏāka ‘I knew that he would not say that’. The taqdīr structure in the speaker’s mind, according to Sībawayhi, is [qad ʿalimtu] ʾannahu lā yaqūlu [ḏāka].

The taqdīr structure here is similar to the one in the previous sentence: [qad tayaqqantu] ʾannaka lā taf ʿalu [ḏāka]. ’ (Qurʾān 20:89). The Qurʾānic verse liʾallā yaʿlama ʾahlu l-kitābi ʾallā yaqdirūna ʿalā šayʾin min faḍli llāhi ‘so the people of the book know that they do not have a right of possession over the grace of God’ (Qurʾān 57:29). The Qurʾānic verse ʿalima ʾan sayakūnu minkum marḍā ‘he knew that there would be sick people among you’ (Qurʾān 73:20). 66 See Sībawayhi, Kitāb I, 429, 18–21 (end of chapter 275); 430, 21–431, 2 (middle of chapter 276).

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