By Kathleen Kuiper
The geographically precise American territories of California, the good Basin, and the Southwest have lengthy sustained quite a few indigenous peoples, together with the Miwok, Comanche, and Navajo, respectively. An exam of every of those tradition parts yields wealthy histories choked with steadfast traditions and spiritual practices, subsistence styles dictated through geographic situation, and social interactions inside and among tribes. This soaking up quantity surveys the historical past of many of the teams that shape those tradition components in addition to the religious, cultural, and social practices that distinguish every one tribe.
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Additional resources for American Indians of California, The Great Basin and the Southwest (Native American Tribes)
Marilyn Angel Wynn/Native Stock/Getty Images materials. They also fashioned vessels of soapstone and produced some of the most complex basketry in native North America. In addition, the Chumash were purveyors of clamshell-bead currency for southern California. Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 7,000 Chumash descendants. Costanoans The Costanoans speak a language that is classified as Penutian. They originally lived in an area stretching from the San Francisco Bay region southward to what is now Point Sur, Calif.
Their summer encampments were moved frequently so as not to exhaust the food resources in any given locale. 46 7 Great Basin Indians 7 A Shoshone man on horseback at the beginning of the 20th century. The eastern Shoshone were among the ﬁrst Great Basin Indians to obtain and utilize horses. Hulton Archive/Getty Images Aside from horse-related technology, such as halters and saddles, the tools of equestrians and pedestrians were quite similar and very typical of hunting and gathering cultures: the bow and arrow, stone knife, rabbit stick, digging stick, basket, net, and flat seed-grinding slab and hand stone.
The chief sources of food for the Costanoans were the sea and streams, which provided mussels, salmon, sea mammals, and seaweed. Rabbits, acorns, and seeds were additional foods. Housing consisted of poles covered with tule (reeds) and brush. For clothing, women wore aprons front and back. Men usually went naked. Costanoan culture was radically transformed after the establishment of missions, as church-imposed tribal assignments mixed members of alien Indian groups and brought about the destruction of most of their institutions.