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Advanced Optics Using Aspherical Elements by Braunecker B., Hentschel R., Tiziani H.

By Braunecker B., Hentschel R., Tiziani H.

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4). , measured as Knoop hardness, HK), which helps to estimate the processing costs for cutting and grinding. 3 nd vs. transmission at UV 300 nm (10 mm thickness). Generally, crystals and ceramics show much higher Knoop hardness values than glasses (Fig. 5). For the polishing process, which is a combination of mechanical abrasion and chemical reactions, no simple relationship between the fundamental material properties exists. Therefore, the polishing behavior is determined empirically in most cases.

Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999. Chapter 3 Applications In this section, we present more details about imaging physics, what criteria describe best the image quality, and what makes aspheres so attractive to the community of designers. 1 Physical Considerations The design of an optical system has to ensure that the specifications for image quality are fulfilled inside the 3D working volume at the object side. This volume is defined as the product of the field of view (FoV) and the usable depth of focus (DoF).

This can be tolerated similarly to spherical surfaces, according to ISO 10110—Part 5, by specifying the permissible value of the sagitta error. Rotationally symmetric deviations, as shown in Fig. 4, can be limited by indicating the permissible rotationally symmetric irregularity provided by this standard. Nonrotationally symmetric deviations can also be limited by specifying the permissible total irregularity. As can be seen in the measured profiles, additional local deviations with strong gradients occur, which must be limited by an additional tolerance for the maximum allowable angular deviation of the local normal from the theoretical normal.

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