By Margaret E. Keck
In Activists past Borders, Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink learn one of those strain team that has been mostly missed by way of political analysts: networks of activists that coalesce and function throughout nationwide frontiers. Their goals can be overseas companies or the regulations of specific states. old examples of such transborder alliances comprise anti-slavery and lady suffrage campaigns. some time past twenty years, transnational activism has had an important effect in human rights, particularly in Latin the US, and advocacy networks have strongly prompted environmental politics besides. The authors additionally study the emergence of a world crusade round violence opposed to women.
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Extra info for Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics
50 See Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993). 51 See Finnemore, National Interests in International Society. , Transnational Relations and World Politics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971). 53 The only factor that many of these transnational relations share is that all operate across national borders, and all are characterized by purposeful actors (at least one of which is a nonstate agent).
Vulnerability arises both from the availability of leverage and the target’s sensitivity to leverage; if either is missing, a campaign may fail. Countries that are most suceptible to network pressures are those that aspire to belong to a normative community of nations. 51 Thus moral leverage may be especially relevant where states are actively trying to raise their status in the international system. Brazilian governments since 1988, for example, have been very concerned about the impact of the Amazon issue on Brazil’s international image.
Chapter 3 considers the largest and best-known network, whose practices since the Second World War have promoted changes in norms and institutions around human rights. Comparison of how human rights activists responded to egregious human rights abuses in Argentina during the 1970s and to endemic abuses over the last several decades in Mexico helps to pinpoint the scope, impact, and strategies of the human rights network. Chapter 4 looks at the development of advocacy networks around third world environmental issues, focusing particularly on the issue of tropical deforestation.