A Theory of Freedom by Stanley I. Benn

By Stanley I. Benn

This booklet is an immense contribution to the research of the philosophy of motion, ethical philosophy, and political philosophy. Its principal inspiration is a notably unorthodox concept of rational motion. such a lot modern Anglo-American philosophers think that motion is inspired by way of hope. Professor Benn rejects the doctrine and replaces it with a reformulation of Kant's moral and political concept, during which rational motion will be made up our minds just by rules, despite outcomes. The ebook analyzes the best way worth conflicts should be rationally resolved, the objectivity of price, the idea that of ethical character, the rules of non-interference and admire of people, the beliefs of autonomy and group and diverse facets of person rights--focusing at the rights to freedom, welfare, and privateness.

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For the remainder of the vast range of our action commitments - political, religious, selfish, or altruistic - some kind of personal affirmation or active commitment to an end may still be thought necessary. After all, one may understand that friends help one another when in need, and one may believe that Alan is one of one's friends and is in need, yet it may be thought nevertheless that no commitment to help Alan follows from this, unless one is also committed to friendship by some kind of personal affirmation or by virtue of having a proattitude to friendship, or affirming that friendship is a good thing.

Though Smith's owing Jones $100 is a reason for Smith to give Jones $100, it is not a reason that can move Smith to pay up unless Smith believes that it is a reason for him. He must believe, say, that debts ought to be paid, or that he will lose Jones's friendship or damage his credit rating if he doesn't pay. And these are reasons for him, according to the orthodoxy, only because they include a desire (or pro-attitude) of Smith's which is a motivator. Of course, not every reason recognized is a reason acted on.

The onlooker would take him to be joking, crazy, or not to understand the words he was using. Of course, believing that it is Wednesday does not commit Alan to saying so every moment of the day; he can reasonably keep quiet. But it does commit him (1) to refraining from saying anything inconsistent with his belief, (2) to denying that it is any day other than Wednesday in circumstances in which to remain silent would standardly be interpreted, according to the prevailing speech conventions, as assenting to such a proposition, and (3) to saying what he believes to be the case, should he give any further information on the subject.

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