By Percy Williams Bridgman
Read Online or Download A Comparison of Certain Electrical Properties of Ordinary and Uranium Lead (1919)(en)(3s) PDF
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Extra info for A Comparison of Certain Electrical Properties of Ordinary and Uranium Lead (1919)(en)(3s)
The expression used in FALCON is: t e >A1V y A 2V ref A 3V @ tf where t is a burn-up and temperature-dependent time, Vy the yield stress, and V the stress on the cladding. A threshold stress, Vref, and a minimum burn-up (>5 GWd/tU) are used in the model and both of these values must be exceeded before SCC is initiated. As shown, the threshold stress decreases as function of burn-up and reaches a minimum value near 25 ksi above 20 GWd/tU. The damage index is calculated in FALCON at each clad element to indicate the potential for cladding failure as a function of time and stress level.
However, in most cases the margins are consumed by a more aggressive core management allowing fuel to operate with higher local peaking factors. A secondary effect of the introduction of the 10 u 10 designs is a larger fraction of fully deconditioned nodes in the core. In such conditions the complex control blade sequence exchanges imposed by the fuel preconditioning and manoeuvring criteria may result in a significant decrease of the plant capacity factor with negative economic consequences. Therefore a balance has to be found between a not-too-aggressive core management and not-too-restrictive preconditioning and manoeuvring criteria.
The traditional operating restrictions were removed and control blade withdrawals during pattern adjustment were performed at or near full power , which accordingly reduced the new margins provided by the liner. x To reduce the average fuel rod linear heat generation rate (LHGR) and provide greater margins to PCI failure, 9 u 9 and 10 u 10 designs were introduced. In most cases, however, the margins are consumed by a more aggressive core management allowing fuel to operate with higher local peaking factors .